This type of research is mostly carried out with universities and other teaching institutions where both parties have a common interest in mind. Often the main incentive for educational institutions is utilization of the farms pond facilities, supervision and accommodation for students and staff, large savings in research costs and the creation of research papers for publication. Nam Sai benefits by improving standards of research, plus use of diagnostic and analytical equipment available in most institutions. Of course the research subject needs to be of interest to both parties and past collaborative research has been done on disease, grow-out technology, nutrition and hatchery management. Usually this is initiated by Nam Sai, but not always and Nam Sai is always open to any ideas of collaborative research.